Horng, J.-L., Semmlow, J. L., Hung, G. K., & Ciuffreda, K. J. As the left eye of a patient with 17D intermittent esotropia is uncovered (arrow), there is in- Head mounted display: Displays Vol 23(1-2) Apr 2002, 57-64. (2000). Adaptation model of accommodation and vergence: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 12(3) Jul 1992, 319-326. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences. In convergence insufficiency, eye misalignment occurs when focusing at near target. Movements of the eyes (2nd rev. Dynamic asymmetries in disparity convergence eye movements: Vision Research Vol 38(18) Sep 1998, 2761-2768. Branching pattern and properties of vertical- and horizontal-related excitatory vestibuloocular neurons in the cat: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 48(4) Oct 1982, 891-903. Art and the oculomotor system: Perspective illustrations evoke vergence changes: Perception Vol 16(6) 1987, 731-746. Work with video display terminals among office employees: IV. Wu, J.-l., & Zheng, Z.-y. Eye-tracking infra-red optometer: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 10(3) Jul 1990, 291-299. Abstract. Human Angular Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Initiation: Relationship to Listing's Law. Convergence produces depth micropsia when eye movements are permitted, but not in … Effects of prediction on timing and dynamics of vergence eye movements: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 20(4) Jul 2000, 298-305. Gaze-shift dynamics in subjects with and without symptoms of convergence insufficiency: Influence of monocular preference and the effect of training: Vision Research Vol 39(18) Sep 1999, 3095-3107. Edwards, M., Pope, D. R., & Schor, C. M. (1998). Convergence accommodation: Journal of the Optical Society of America Vol 73(3) Mar 1983, 332-338. (2004). Voluntary convergence is normally accompanied by accommodation and miosis (constriction of the pupil); often however, with extended practice, individuals can learn to dissociate accommodation and vergence.. Bahill, A. T., & LaRitz, T. (1984). The patient asked to maintain fixation on the object as it is brought towards the patient until one of the eyes loses fixation and dissociates from the fellow eye … Organisation of signals involved in binocular perception and vergence control: Vision Research Vol 41(25-26) 2001, 3497-3503. Changing size (looming) as a stimulus to accommodation and vergence: Vision Research Vol 28(8) 1988, 883-898. Takagi, M., Trillenberg, P., & Zee, D. S. (2001). Adaptive control of vergence in humans. Aslin, R. N., & Dobson, V. (1983). Hotson, J. R. (1984). Averbuch-Heller, L., Lewis, R. F., & Zee, D. S. (1999). Coubard, O. Dynamic properties of medial rectus motoneurons during vergence eye movements: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 67(1) Jan 1992, 64-74. Each therapy procedure is described in this manual. Under normal conditions, changing the focus of the eyes to look at an object at a different distance will automatically cause vergence and accommodation, sometimes known as the accommodation-convergence reflex. How to use convergence in a sentence. Electromyogram during fusional diver-gence movement. Diplopia thresholds and the initiation of vergence eye-movements: Vision Research Vol 21(12) 1981, 1727-1737. Proximal vergence is sometimes also called voluntary vergence, which however more generally means vergence under voluntary control and is sometimes considered a fifth type of vergence. Horizontal vergence involves mainly the medial and lateral rectus. McHenry, M. Q., & Angelaki, D. E. (2000). Mok, D., Ro, A., Cadera, W., Crawford, J. D., & et al. Duwaer, A. L., & Van Den Brink, G. (1981). Yellow Filters Can Improve Magnocellular Function: Motion Sensitivity, Convergence, Accommodation, and Reading. Alvarez, T. L., Bhavsar, M., Semmlow, J. L., Bergen, M. T., & Pedrono, C. (2005). Pontine Omnipause Activity During Conjugate and Disconjugate Eye Movements in Macaques: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 90(6) Dec 2003, 3838-3853. A behavioral link between the oculomotor and cardiovascular systems: Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science Vol 30(1) Jan-Mar 1995, 46-67. Neurons in the monkey midbrain with activity related to vergence eye movement and accommodation: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 55(5) May 1986, 915-930.  Voluntary vergence is also required for viewing autostereograms as well as for voluntary crossing of the eyes. (2001). Schor, C. M., Gleason, G., & Lunn, R. (1993). Photo-chemical activity in retina and conversion into neural impulse Descartes's blind man revisited: Bimanual triangulation of distance using static hand-held rods: American Journal of Psychology Vol 116(1) Spr 2003, 71-98. With ROF, an expanding flow field elicits involuntary convergent eye movements while a contracting one elicits involuntary divergent eye movements (see Figure 1). Owens, D. A. Human eye - Human eye - The visual process: The first line of protection of the eyes is provided by the lids, which prevent access of foreign bodies and assist in the lubrication of the corneal surface. Smooth pursuit-like eye movements during mental extrapolation of motion: The facilitatory effect of drowsiness: Cognitive Brain Research Vol 25(1) Sep 2005, 328-338. Divergent strabismus following neonatal callosal section is due to a failure of convergence: Brain Research Vol 239(1) May 1982, 275-278. Decline of Vertical Gaze and Convergence with Aging: Gerontology Vol 50(3) 2004, 177-181. Functional neuroanatomy of the human near/far response to blur cues: Eye-lens accommodation/vergence to point targets varying in depth: European Journal of Neuroscience Vol 20(10) Nov 2004, 2722-2732. (2001). ... To find convergence in this wide range of theories, explananda, neural signals and associated mechanisms will not be easy. Convergence insufficiency is a condition in which your eyes are unable to work together when looking at nearby objects. Miller, R. J., Pigion, R. G., & Takahama, M. (1986). Compensatory eye movements during near fixation after fast adaptation to lenses: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 12(3) Jul 1992, 335-339. Lenhart, R. E. (1985). The effect of display size on disparity scaling from differential perspective and vergence cues: Vision Research Vol 36(9) May 1996, 1255-1264. The mechanism of eye accommodation is not the same for all animals. A transition between eye and object rivalry determined by stimulus coherence: Vision Research Vol 41(8) Apr 2001, 981-989. Shebilske, W. L., Proffitt, D. R., & Fisher, S. K. (1984). Judge, S. J. Ivins, J. P., Porrill, J., & Frisby, J. P. (1999). Gain changes in the accommodative convergence cross-link: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 16(4) Jul 1996, 318-325. Migliaccio, A. New York, NY: Elsevier Science. (1996). Inhibition of saccade and vergence eye movements in 3D space: Journal of Vision Vol 5(1) Jan 2005, 1-19. A., & Kapoula, Z. Disparity minimisation, cyclovergence, and the validity of nonius lines as a technique for measuring torsional alignment: Perception Vol 28(2) 1999, 127-141. (1993). Short-term predictive changes in the dynamics of disparity vergence eye movements: Journal of Vision Vol 5(7) 2005, 640-649. ABSTRACT. Vergence-mediated modulation of the human horizontal angular VOR provides evidence of pathway-specific changes in VOR dynamics. If you have this condition, one or both eyes move outward when you … (2003). Frantz, K. A., Ingelse, J. C., & Lorentz, S. M. (2000). Bucci, M. P., Kapoula, Z., Yang, Q., & Bremond-Gignac, D. (2006). Efferent factors in natural event perception can be rationalized and verified: A reply to Turvey and Solomon: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance Vol 10(3) Jun 1984, 455-460. Discharge of saccade-related superior colliculus neurons during saccades accompanied by vergence: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 90(2) Aug 2003, 1124-1139. (2002). Accommodative responses to anisoaccommodative targets: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 18(3) May 1998, 254-262. Bando, T., Takagi, M., Toda, H., & Yoshizawa, T. (1992). McLin, L. N., Schor, C. M., & Kruger, P. B. Dickinson, C. M. (1986). [unreliable source?] The effects of optical vergence, contrast, and luminance on the accommodative response to spatially bandpass filtered targets: Vision Research Vol 27(10) 1987, 1797-1806. The vergence eye movements induced by radial optic flow: Some fundamental properties of the underlying local-motion detectors: Vision Research Vol 47(20) Sep 2007, 2637-2660. Vergence effects on the perception of motion-in-depth: Experimental Brain Research Vol 183(3) Nov 2007, 313-322. Turner, J. E., Horwood, A. M., Houston, S. M., & Riddell, P. M. (2002). Viguier, A., Clement, G., & Trotter, Y. Effects of VDT screen luminance and file background illumination on visual proof-reading performance: Psychological Science (China) Vol 24(1) Jan 2001, 26-28. Perceived depth and direction as a function of ocular vergence: Japanese Journal of Psychonomic Science Vol 21(2) Mar 2003, 103-111. Harwerth, R. S., Smith, E. L., & Siderov, J. The natural moon illusion: A multifactor angular account: Perception Vol 23(3) 1994, 321-333. Cornelissen, P., Munro, N., Fowler, S., & Stein, J. Fixating on the wallpaper illusion: A commentary on "The role of vergence in the perception of distance: A fair test of Bishop Berkeley's claim' by Logvinenko et. Eye Movements Induced by Changes in the Internal Representation of Body Posture: Human Physiology Vol 31(5) Sep 2005, 554-558. Convergence-initiated voluntary flutter: A normal intrinsic capability in man: Brain Research Vol 294(2) Mar 1984, 299-304. Preferred vertical gaze direction and observation distance: Ergonomics Vol 34(3) Mar 1991, 379-392. Lasker, D. M., Ramat, S., Carey, J. P., & Minor, L. B. (1984). Fusional vergence hysteresis and sensory-motor connection of the two eyes: Japanese Journal of Psychology Vol 57(4) Oct 1986, 220-227. Regan, D., Regan, M. P., & Harnanansingh, D. (2006). Short-latency disparity vergence eye movements: A response to disparity energy: Vision Research Vol 46(21) Sep 2006, 3723-3740. (1985). Abstract. Buzzelli, A. R., Trowell-Harris, I., & Protsko, R. (1989). Accommodation is the mechanism by which the eye changes its refractive power by altering the shape of the lens in order to focus objects at variable distances. Bucci, M. P., Kapoula, Z., Bremond-Gignac, D., & Wiener-Vacher, S. (2006). Convergence responses to monocularly viewed objects: Implications for distance perception: Perception Vol 23(3) 1994, 303-319. II. Logvinenko, A. D., Epelboim, J., & Steinman, R. M. (2002). A vergence is the simultaneous movement of both eyes in opposite directions to obtain or maintain single binocular vision..  This action is mediated by the medial rectus muscle, which is innervated by Cranial nerve III. Neurons in the posterior interposed nucleus of the cerebellum related to vergence and accommodation. Ringach, D. L., Hawken, M. J., & Shapley, R. (1996). Conjugate and vergence oscillations during saccades and gaze shifts: Implications for integrated control of binocular movement: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 87(1) Jan 2002, 257-272. To look at an object closer by, the eyes rotate towards each other (convergence), while for an object farther away they rotate away from each other (divergence). Wismeijer, D. A., van Ee, R., & Erkelens, C. J. Haruo Toda, Toyohisa Yoshizawa, Mineo Takagi, Takehiko Bando, The properties of convergence eye movements evoked from the rostral and caudal lateral suprasylvian cortex in the cat, Neuroscience Research, 10.1016/S0168-0102(00)00235-2, 39, 3, (359-367), (2001). (2003). Stevenson, S. B., Reed, P. E., & Yang, J. Shebilske, W. L., Karmiohl, C. M., & Proffitt, D. R. (1983). (2002). Characteristics of saccades and vergence in two kinds of sequential looking tasks: Vision Research Vol 40(16) 2000, 2083-2090. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences. Rosenfield, M., & Gilmartin, B. ... Convergence Insufficiency Neuro-Mechanism in Adults Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry . Cumming, B. G., & Parker, A. J. Schor, C. M., Gleason, G., Maxwell, J., & Lunn, R. (1993). Distance perception for points at equiconvergence and equidistance loci: Perception Vol 32(6) 2003, 707-716. Feresin, C., & Howard, I. P. (1995). Judge, S. J., & Cumming, B. G. (1986). Koken, P. W., & Erkelens, C. J. Vergence eye movements during fixations in reading: Acta Psychologica Vol 92(2) Jul 1996, 131-151. Baker, F. J., & Gilmartin, B. Adaptation to optically-increased interocular separation under naturalistic viewing conditions: Perception Vol 19(2) 1990, 171-180. (2005). Near point of Convergence (NPC) is measured by bringing an object to the nose and observing when the patient sees double, or one eye deviates out. Higashiyama, A. (From Duke-Elder:") Text-Book of Ophthalmology. A divergence of the eyes in the vertical direction is physiologically seen during a head tilt, due to vestibular signaling, and when viewing a rotating visual image. Fixation on fixation impedes cognition: Reply to Kohly and Ono: Spatial Vision Vol 15(3) 2002, 387-391. Depth cues, rather than perceived depth, govern vergence: Experimental Brain Research Vol 184(1) Jan 2008, 61-70. Amsterdam, Netherlands: North-Holland/Elsevier Science Publishers. Brautaset, R. L., & Jennings, J. Eye velocity asymmetry, ocular orientation, and convergence induced by angular rotation in the rabbit: Vision Research Vol 46(6-7) Mar 2006, 961-969. Dark vergence and dark accommodation in human infants: Vision Research Vol 23(12) 1983, 1671-1678. (2000). Niechwiej-Szwedo, E., Gonzalez, E., Bega, S., Verrier, M. C., Wong, A. M., & Steinbach, M. J. (1990). Favilla, M., Ghelarducci, B., la Noce, A., & Starita, A. (1981). (1992). Short-latency ocular following in humans is dependent on absolute (rather than relative) binocular disparity: Vision Research Vol 43(12) Jun 2003, 1387-1396. A Comparison of Subjects with Convergence Insufficiency and Subjects with Normal Binocular Vision: Using a Quality of Life Questionnaire: Journal of Behavioral Optometry Vol 15(2) 2004, 37-41. (2005). (1988). Crossed and uncrossed stereoacuity at distance and the effect from heterophoria: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 22(3) May 2002, 189-193. Mays, L. E., Porter, J. D., Gamlin, P. D., & Tello, C. A. Short delays of vergence eye movements in man during pursuit tasks in light and dark conditions. The role of the cyclopean eye in vision: Sometimes inappropriate, always irrelevant: Vision Research Vol 42(9) Apr 2002, 1157-1163. Hogan, R. E., & Gilmartin, B. (2003). Kodaka, Y., Sheliga, B. M., FitzGibbon, E. J., & Miles, F. A. Mowforth, P., Mayhew, J. E., & Frisby, J. P. (1981). Purpose: To describe the design and methodology of the Convergence Insufficiency Neuro-mechanism in Adult Population Study (CINAPS), the first randomized clinical trial (RCT) studying young adults with symptomatic convergence insufficiency (CI) using a combination of traditional clinical tests, objective eye movement recordings, and functional brain activities as outcome measures. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences. Analysis of the relation between types of ocular dominance and convergence: Atti della Fondazione Giorgio Ronchi Vol 42(3-4) May-Aug 1987, 285-300. The nucleus raphe interpositus is associated with fast vergence movements, whereas the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis is activated during slow vergence movements. Lam, A. K. C., Tse, P., Choy, E., & Chung, M. (2002). Human eye - Human eye - Movements of the eyes: Because only a small portion of the retina, the fovea, is actually employed for distinct vision, it is vitally important that the motor apparatus governing the direction of gaze be extremely precise in its operation, and rapid. Convergence insufficiency is the inability to keep the two eyes working together, to converge the eyes and maintain binocular fusion while focusing on a near target. A longitudinal study of vergence adaptation in incipient presbyopia: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 23(6) Nov 2003, 507-511. Binocular eye movements while showing a moving stimulus to one eye only. Frantz, K. A. (2006). Kerkhoff, G., & Stogerer, E. (1994). Recovery of fusional convergence after systematic practice: Brain Injury Vol 8(1) Jan 1994, 15-22. (2007). Preferred gaze inclination and the resting position of the vergence system: Zeitschrift fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie Vol 38(4) 1991, 560-584. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences. Capture of visual direction in dynamic vergence is reduced with flashed monocular lines: Vision Research Vol 46(16) Aug 2006, 2608-2614. Infant's development on pictorial depth perception: Jornal de Psicologia Vol 10(2) Apr 1992, 3-8.  This action is mediated by the medial rectus muscle, which is innervated by Cranial nerve III. Kertesz, A. E., Hampton, D. R., & Sabrin, H. W. (1983). Oculomotor consequences of beta-adrenoceptor antagonism during sustained near vision: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 7(2) 1987, 127-130. Jaschinski, W., Brode, P., & Griefahn, B. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences. Convergence ability can be tested with 2 different methods: Near point of convergence (NPC) - is the point where the visual axes intersect under the maximum effort of the convergence. Horizontal and vertical prism adaptation are different mechanisms: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 25(3) May 2005, 215-218. In each eye, the visual axis will point towards the object of interest in order to focus it on the fovea. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences. The effects of distance between interactants and subject anxiety on conjugate lateral eye movements: Brain and Cognition Vol 4(3) Jul 1985, 328-337. Instability of torsion during smooth asymmetric vergence: Vision Research Vol 39(5) Mar 1999, 993-1009. In ophthalmology, convergence is the simultaneous inward movement of both eyes toward each other, usually in an effort to maintain single binocular vision when viewing an object. The resting state of the eyes: American Scientist Vol 72(4) Jul-Aug 1984, 378-387. (2002). Definition: Accommodation is the mechanism by which the eye changes its refractive power by altering the shape of the lens in order to focus objects at variable distances. The contribution of accommodation and the ocular surface to the microfluctuations of wavefront aberrations of the eye: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 26(5) Sep 2006, 439-446. The roles of convergence and apparent distance in depth constancy with motion parallax: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 46(5) Nov 1989, 401-408. Kapoula, Z., Yang, Q., Coubard, O., Daunys, G., & Orssaud, C. (2005). The source of disparity vergence innervation determines prism adaptation: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 16(1) Jan 1996, 73-82. The relationship between tonic vergence and oculomotor stress induced by ethanol: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 5(1) 1985, 43-51. ) Oct 1993, 48-55 Alshuth, E. 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